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The Impact of the Internet on Contemporary Literature

Literature basically is everything that has ever been written. Anything from the earliest poems of Homer, to today’s web pages, can be considered literature. But for a specific sense, there are various kinds of literature. Literature can be written in a specific language, like English Literature or be written by a specific culture, such as African Literature. But literature really means more than printed words and the internet certainly is a part of literature. I should note that the word literature comes from the French phrase belles-lettres, which means “beautiful writing”. When a piece of work is called literature, it is usually considered a great work of art. The internet literature does not necessarily have to be this way for the fact that no one controls the internet literature. In the following essay I am going to speak about the impact of the internet on literature of nowadays.

There are two main classes of literature which are also present on the internet: fiction and nonfiction. Fiction is writing that an author creates from the imagination. Authors may include personal experience, or facts about real people or events, but they combine these facts with imagined situations (Moran, 45). In non-internet literature the project undergoes at least some sort of censorship in terms of what words can be used, yet the internet allows the authors to put anything they desire on the web site and enjoy it. Most fiction is narrative writing, such as novels and short stories. Fiction also includes drama and poetry. Nonfiction is factual writing about real-life situations. The principal forms of nonfiction include the essay, biography, autobiography, and diary (Browner, 90). The internet presents a new forms–internet pages, or internet books.

People read literature for a variety of reasons. The most common reason for reading is pleasure. People read to pass the time, or for information and knowledge. Through literature, people meet characters they can identify with, and sometimes find solutions for their own problems. With literature, a person can often understand situations they could not otherwise understand in real life (Koehler, 28). Often, just the arrangement of the words can be enjoyable, just as a child likes the sound of “Ring Around the Rosie”, even though they might not understand what the words mean. There are four elements of literature: characters, plot, theme, and style. A good author has the ability to balance these elements, creating a unified work of art. The characters make up the central interest of many dramas and novels, as well as biographies and autobiographies. A writer must know each character thoroughly and have a clear idea about each ones look, speech, and thoughts. The internet literature is not difficult to create for the fact that unlike “traditional” literature the internet literature requires minimal start up costs (Moran, 47). And because reading usually involves convenience, at some point of time one would not be surprised to see convenient electronic devices that could be transported anywhere and would download books from the internet and present them in digital format.

Motivation is the reason for characters actions. A good writer will be sure that the motives of a character are clear and logical. The internet writers do not have to be this way, they are not controlled and they hardly risky anything by publishing online. Setting is where a character’s story takes place. The plot is built around a series of events that take place within a definite period. It is what happens to the characters. No rules exist for the order in which the events are presented. A unified plot has a beginning, middle, and an end. In literary terms, a unified plot includes an exposition, a rising action, a climax, and a denouement, or outcome. The exposition gives the background and situation of the story (Browner, 93). The rising action builds upon the exposition. It creates suspense, or a reader’s desire to find out what happens next. The climax is the highest point of interest, also a turning point of a story. The denouement is the conclusion. The theme is the basic idea expressed by a work of literature. It develops from the interplay of character and plot. A theme may contain morals, to warn the reader to lead a better life or a different kind of life. The internet literature does not have to be this way at all because no one controls it. The write take minimal risk in terms of investment, yet possibly can find readers from all over the world, which can pay for the e-book and download it to their own computers, is very high (Moran, 49).

A serious writer strives to make his work an honest expression of sentiment, or true emotion. They avoid sentimentality, which means giving too much emphasis to emotion or pretending to feel an emotion. A writer of honest emotion does not have to tell the reader what to think about a story. A good story will direct the reader to the author’s conclusion. Style is the way a writer uses words to create literature. It is difficult to enjoy a story’s characters or plot without enjoying the author’s style (Browner, 98). The style of an author is as important as what he is trying to say. Point of view, or the way a story is presented, is another part of style. A writer may tell a story in the first person, using the pronoun I, as though the narrator were a major or minor character in it. Or, the writer may use the third person method, in which the narrator stands apart from the characters and describes the action using such pronouns as he and she. There are two types of third person views: limited and omniscient. In the third person limited point of view, the narrator describes the events as seen by a single character. In the third person omniscient, or all knowing, point of view, the narrator reports on what several characters are thinking and feeling. Reading is an intently personal art. There are no final rules for judging a piece of writing. Often, people’s judgment of a work can change as taste and fashion change. Yet the classics continue to challenge readers’ imaginations and give ageless advice. Shakespeare will most likely be as popular a hundred years from now as he is today. That is power of literature. Literature is timeless (Moran, 53).

 

Can Elearning Solutions Be Applied to the Study of Arts and Letters?

Are elearning solutions effective in teaching the humanities? Could this mode of teaching where in the teacher is either far away or completely absent, be a complete experience of learning? How could students possibly learn much about art for instance?

What we can learn is limited by the ambit of our experiences and of the media that we are exposed to. Usually, the best media that creates a deep imprint on us is good Literature. However in order to appreciate good literature, we must in turn have already seen what we have read at work in our own lives, even for just a glimmer of this sight is enough and literature will awaken and deepen that glimmer of insight. But if we have not at all seen any part of ourselves or our lives in the text, then the text will never come to life. And this is applicable to teaching as well. What is taught in any humanities classroom, especially if these things have something to do with the profundity of human experience (I am speaking primarily of literature, philosophy, psychology and the arts) but such human profundity of insight can be seen in every humanities subject such as history or sociology. The difference will always be in the slanted use of discourse to achieve whatever power struggle the teachers wish to establish will only translate well if the students have some concrete idea of what is being taught. Otherwise, they will only be able to memorize facts, if they succeed in that at all since the context will always make the facts easier to remember.

The trouble is that elearning solutions cannot help but remove the teacher from the picture. After all, it is the essence of elearning to be fast, easy, and done at one’s own pace. With a full-time teacher, the pace will have to be managed and if the teacher is any good, he or she will continually challenge the students’ thinking.

Perhaps elearning can be used as say a primer for reading support and assessment. But without the full insight of a responding human person, there can be no recitation or no reaction paper written in an elearning class for the arts and letters. The practical applications of quick and accessible training are just incompatible with the image of the Arts and it will probably always be that way until the end of time.

With the humanities, the teacher must always be present. The equation is simple, take away the human, then there is no humanities left at all. Of course courses such as literature can still be taught by computers, but the student will not be able to feel feedback from his or her insights. After all, the essay and reaction, analysis reports are essential to these subjects. And no computer built today is yet able to even process such things. Elearning solutions will always be effective in the corporate arena. It should also be used in the sciences and in math primarily. And finally, it can only act as supplementary or support to the subjects of Humanities.

 

Selecting a Subject For Your Art and Why – A View

What is the first thing that strikes a chord – right or wrong – when you glance at a painted piece of art on canvas? Its theme of course. It is often said that more than half of a painting’s worth is its choice of subject. Choosing your subject somewhere has to be a trade-off between its saleability and your passion for a topic. Historically, era and the then prevailing genres affected paintings and their subjects, ranging from trite to more profound depictions. Throughout, the field of art has witnessed connects between the styles and the subjects of the painters. Arguably though, some preferred a wider selection and experimented with diverse thoughts.

Focusing back on the most ancient form of art, the ‘Cave Paintings,’ you can find the depictions of huge wild animals existing in those times, bountifully. These paintings mainly reflect the thought process of primitive human race, which had a day-to-day interaction with animals, and whose main occupation was hunting. The ‘Realist’ painters concentrated on real life subjects – humans, flora, & fauna – and created lifelike works. Although, the nineteenth century ‘Impressionist Art’ also carried similar subjects, its focus on lighting, color contrasts, bold brushstrokes, and shadows, were its distinguishing features. The advent of Photography inspired and challenged ‘Impressionism.’ ‘Surrealism,’ on the other hand, was more of an ‘Abstract’ form of art, where artists used bold colors to capture their flights of fantasy. A manipulation of color schemes was the characteristic identifiable with this sect of art. The paintings of ‘Victorian’ times were more of narratives, set in the themes of the Bible, mythology, literature, or modern life. Nonetheless, artists active during the World Wars often painted the gory pictures of the battlefields, the plight of the war prisoners and common masses. Present day art, better known as ‘Modern Art,’ corresponds most closely to its predecessor, ‘Surrealism, which is marked with fantastical and an abstract depiction of a wide variety of subjects.

The use of the medium of paintings also plays a role in the choice of subject. For instance, ‘Oil’ is considered to be the most versatile medium that gives the artist the liberty to choose from nature, people, occasions, abstract, still life, and various other subjects. Another handy medium is ‘Acrylic,’ with benefits similar to oil, the versatility of watercolors, and the additional quality of permanence.

Another, seemingly detached factor that in fact greatly affects the subject is the artist’s motive – whether it is purely to express his love for painting or to create a commercial product. However, there are certain subjects that both the schools of thought accept. Some of these themes include landscapes, erotic themes, abstract art, and portraits. The discussion on art and its attributes can go on endlessly, the bottom line remains that the manifestations of pure art cut across the boundaries of caste, creed, nations, and time!

 

Art and Culture in Asia

The culture of Asia

There is a rich cultural heritage in Asia, with numerous ethnicities, countries as well as religions that all shape the human civilization in that part of the world. Music, cuisine, literature, sports and literature shape Asian culture, as well as philosophy and major religions such as Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism.

There are over 600 languages that are spoken in Asia, such that the language is widely classified into families. Major families include Japanese spoken in Japan, Sino-Tibetan which includes Taiwanese, Wu, Tibetan and Cantonese. These languages have been passed down generations through literature such as the 1001 Arabian nights.

The various ethnic groups of Asian descent, all have varying cultures, shaped by the climate, topography as well as technological advances. One of the unique cultures of Asia is shared religion. In East Asia, countries such as Japan, north and South Korea, Taiwan and China have the same religions, which are Taoism and Buddhism, due to their proximity to each other. Other countries such as Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh and India also have large populations of Buddhists, with Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism also practiced widely.

Martial arts is a distinctive aspect of Asian culture that has been widely appreciated worldwide, thanks to its great health benefits to the body, as well as being popularized by superstar performers such as Jet Li, Bruce Lee And Jackie Chan. Styles of martial arts such as karate from Japan, Taekwondo from Korea and the Chinese kung Fu are an important aspect of Asian culture.

Tea is very important in Asian culture, from China, Malaysia to India. It is a huge part of Asian ceremonies. The art of folding paper, also known as origami, is also a part of Asian culture that is common in Japan and china.

Asian art

Asian art is very rich and diverse, being influenced by the various cultures in this massive region. The Asian peoples value their art a lot since it is a way of preserving their culture and traditions in the face of westernization propagated by years of colonization and modernity. Asian art includes wonderful works of literature like the 1001 Arabian nights. China has also contributed heavily to Asian art, with classical poems and works of art. Other notable works of art include Japanese literature like the haiku form of poetry as well as Persian culture.

Asian art has been influenced by religion, the materials available for shaping their art on as well as history and modernity. Asian art covers pottery, ink painting, as well as manga, which are the modern Japanese cartoons that have proven to be widely popular in all parts of the world. Examples are Ruruoni Kenshin, as well as samurai jack. Ceramics as well as sculptures of Buddha are notable examples of how Asians choose to express themselves using art.

Asia also has unique styles of architecture, inspired by the Islamic and Buddhist religions, as well as traditional ways of building houses. Notable examples of Asian architecture include the Buddhist temples of china, the Great Wall of China as well as Islamic mosques of Pakistan and India.

In a nutshell, art and culture in Asia is as rich and beautiful as in any other part of the world. Indeed, the diversity and large population of the continent means that it is extremely diverse and rich.

 

Art, Music and Literature Based Communities

What drives people? Some may say inspiration, our ambitions and needs; this is not very far from saying that people are driven by the inspiration provided by art and music as well as by the need to quench our literary thirst. For most people reading a book, watching a movie or listening to their favorite music isn’t enough of an experience, the most important part is to interact and get validation from people with the same interests about our point of views and opinions.

It is often said that every individual is different, this remains true in many aspects however when it comes to topics such as Art, music and literature we all have something in common, our tastes as far as music may concur with someone else’s but our interests in literature could differ. Validation and the exchange of ideas is what makes the web so popular, every site built provides ideas which are meant to be validated by people, without this basic interaction the entire concept of the web is defeated.

People interested in art, music literature, etc. have taken advantage of the web to create communities focused on sharing their thoughts regarding these topics, for instance some may consider “Five for Fighting – 100 years” as much as a piece of musical art as “Pachebel’s – Canon”, some may definitively disagree as both pieces belong to different genres, one has vocals the other is solely instrumental; small differences in the perception of art is what triggers reactions on which entire communities come together and share their ideas regarding the topic being discussed.

The same can be said of literature, for some Romeo and Juliet is without a doubt one of the most beautiful pieces of romantic literature ever written, however the language used may not have the same effect in contemporary readers as it won’t convey the emotions it did back then; so it is to say that the power of such piece has diluted through time. In order to recreate such excellent work actors and writers come together and work in such play, however what matters is how people perceive their work and how emotions are conveyed through professional acting, again small differences trigger a sea of reviews and opinions which is better expressed in online interactions.

For most of us free speech is the ultimate work of art, as it allows us to express our thoughts through any medium without worrying of censorship, taking advantage of the tools and resources available to express our thoughts is without a doubt the most precious right.

 

Abstract Art and Its Future

Precision is not reality, said Henri Mattisse the great artist. Thus the search for exactness begins and authenticity struggles.

In art, everything is precise. That explains the genuineness of art in a broad scale. But art need not carry accuracy. The reason- there is no clear-cut rules. The rules in art depends on an artist’s imagination, how he carries his dreams forward, what shape he gives to them, and how he reproduces the idea on to canvas with a brush dipped in paint.

Abstract art is a form of art. As the name explains, the paintings come under it are abstract in nature. It is not related to anything, non representational, even though it is a clear representation of an imaginative mind. Abstract art can be divided basically in to two types.

  • Figurative abstraction
  • Emotional abstraction

As the name suggests, figurative representation is the symbolic representation of situations or ideas in a way the artist conceptualizes. They are simplifying reality by avoiding unnecessary details. The essence is left for use. Emotional abstraction is the representation of emotion, spirituality or voice.

The movement

The movement of abstract painting emerged in the mid forties in New York. It gradually gained importance in American art. When artists like James McNiell began believing in the harmonious arrangement of colors in representing visual sensation rather than the depiction of objects, abstraction started gaining prominence.

Later artists took up the movement in such a way that abstract painting gained much importance. The artists believed that the job of the artists was to deepen the mystery rather than revealing it. In abstraction only conception made a difference. The basic idea behind the idea remains the same. Stephen Wright once commented on abstract painting that he had been doing a lot of abstract painting without paint, brush and canvas, but just by thinking about it.

Abstract expressionism

This is the movement in which the artists rapidly applied paint on canvas without great care for detail, and thus showing emotions and feelings spread on the canvas. The works of abstract painters showed a sense of hastiness and an intervention of life situations like a risk or a chance in applying paint on canvas.

Some abstract artists even took a mystical approach to subject matter, but by defining their objectives and intentions clearly on canvas. It was generally believed that the painters of abstract expressionism relied on the spontaneity of creativity and the representation of that flow on canvas in a scale broad and large. The expressive method of painting was considered important.

Abstract expressionism did not focus on one topic; rather it focused on many themes or styles. It concentrated on many ideas. The artists of abstract expressionism valued individuality and spontaneous inventiveness.

The painters who came to be called as abstract expressionists shared an outlook

Characterized by the spirit of revolt. The movement of abstract expressionism

can be divided in to two-

  • Action painting
  • Color Field painting

Action painting

Action painting is related to surrealism, which is the movement in visual art and literature that became popular in Europe between World Wars I and II. It emphasized on positive expression. Artists like Pollock Jackson with essence form surrealism, implied a technique different from the usual styles of painting that employed the method of dripping paint on to the canvas. Instead of brush, sticks and knives were used to manipulate the picture. This type of painting began to be called as action painting.

Color field painting

This abstract art movement started only in the 1960’s. A type of abstract expressionism, color field paintings employed the use of solid color covering the whole canvas in such a way that the lyrical or atmospheric effects of color were seen in a vast canvas. The aesthetics of the color field artists were truly intellectual aesthetic. They dealt with two-dimensional spaces and their color tone was different and not modulated.

Abstract expressionism presented within its large framework, a stylistic diversity that was not easily identifiable. Many artists explored various forms of painting in abstract expressionistic painting. Here more attention was paid to brushstrokes, texture and surface qualities.

Thus abstract art gained much importance. Wassily Kandinsky came to be known as the father of abstract painting. Other artists who followed the path of Kandinsky were kasimir Malevich, Raoul Dufy, Paul Klee, Juan Gris, and Piet Mondrian. Thus abstract painting spread far and wide with an intellectual tone to the form of art in a style varied, specific and incomprehensible.

The future of abstract painting

With a fabulous history of abstract paintings done on landscape, floral art, people, and just emotions in various ways possible, abstract art grew on a canvas broad, but ambiguous. Artists like Wassily Kandinsky and Piet Mondrain came with newer conceptions and ideas representing the new form of art in an aesthetically well built canvas.

There would definitely be a shift in style from the usually employed techniques like action painting and color field painting. Newer forms will take shape with styles which may take time to establish in the field of painting.

With the invention of more tools in painting, and with newer methods employed, abstract painting will undergo a lot of changes in the coming future. Probably, forms take a different shape, ideas may be modernized, and fresh thoughts would be employed. But the basic idea behind the notion, which is abstraction, will never change.

To the great painter there is only one manner of painting – that which he employs in his art. He appreciates his own art and also criticizes. Because nobody, but he can understand the enormity of his work, so do his pitfalls.

Abstract art has definitely a future, bright, colorful even though vague. As Edgar says, “A painting requires a little mystery, some vagueness, and some fantasy. When you always make your meaning perfectly plain you end up boring people.”

 

Rare Highlights of Music, Art and Literature at the Morgan Library, New York

Art, history and literature lovers spend days at the Morgan Library and Museum exploring the most amazing collection of manuscripts, paintings and books – featuring a compilation of important, rare and priceless pieces covering Egyptian art, the Renaissance, manuscripts, rare books, and even the earliest evidence of writing.

Founded in 1906 to house the private collection and library of John Pierpont Morgan, which includes a rare collection of prints and drawings, the library was designed by Charles McKim. In 1924 it was made a public institution by Morgan’s son John Pierpont Morgan, Jr., and the building is now a National Historic Landmark.

Today the complex of buildings housing the Library and Museum also serve as a scholarly research centre. The library boasts many illuminated manuscripts as well as original manuscripts by famous authors. A few interesting and unusual items include, Sri Walter Scott’s ‘Ivanhoe’, and Charles Dickens’ ‘A Christmas Carol’. Manuscripts by Charlotte Bronte, Lord Byron and original poems by Robert Burns are other popular items on display.

The collection also boasts a large compilation of incunabula, prints and drawings of European artists. The collection covers Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Rembrandt, Rubens, Gainsborough, Dürer, and Picasso. The incunabula include early printed Bibles, which includes the Biblia Latina, the first good example of European ‘moveable metal type’ and two other Gutenberg Bibles and Old Testament Miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions. The collection of printed books and bindings extends to cover important first editions from the 20th century, highlighted by first editions of classical authors. The vast Bindings Collection of about a thousand volumes represents English, French and Italian bindings of the 16th through the 19th century.

Most literary and history scholars are attracted to the material from Ancient Egypt and medieval Liturgical objects. Original drawing for the edition of the Book of Job by William Blake and Antoine de Saint Exupery’s concept drawings for The Little Prince are also on display.

The Morgan Library & Museum also houses a fine collection of music manuscripts, first editions of scores and librettos, some 1700 items spanning six centuries and covering many countries. The collection’s highlights include autograph manuscript of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Violin Sonata no. 10 in G, and Mozart’s “Haffner” Symphony, again an autograph manuscript. Apart from The Library also houses an impressive collection of manuscripts by Brahms, Chopin, Debussy, Schubert, and Richard Strauss.

The collection of drawings and paintings spans the 14th through 21st centuries, mainly focusing on European drawings before 1825. The collection includes 16th and 18th century Italian drawings; works by Raphael, Michelangelo and da Vinci, France represented by Claude, Watteau and Fragonard, and covers the works of Rembrandt, with the largest collection of Rembrandt etchings in the United State, Rubens and van Dyck.

Exploring Morgan’s vast collection would definitely take a couple of days and the best option would be to find lodging in the vicinity. For lodging close by try the Shelburne Murray Hill Hotel in New York. Located in Midtown Manhattan, the hotel also provides easy access to Fifth Avenue shopping, The UN Headquarters and other interesting attractions and museums.

 

Chess in the Arts and Literature

Chess is a board game that has been played for many centuries. It originated in Europe and is a very popular game still today. There are national tournaments held all over the world for all age groups from young children to adults. It is also a popular game to be played in nursing homes or elderly care communities as it offers mind stimulation for the elderly.

Chess is a game that is also very popular in arts and literature. It can be seen in books, magazines, articles, newspapers, arts, ballets, or music. There have been many very well known books that are sometimes based around the game of chess or that use the game at some point in the literature. It also can be used as a metaphor for something else.

There are various chess magazines and publications that you can find in bookstores, libraries or online. Some offers subscriptions to chess enthusiasts, while others do not. Chess can also be found in many online venues.

For the chess enthusiast, there are books that are centered on chess. Sometimes this can include the actual game being some sort of central part of the book. Other times authors may be less obvious and use the chess game as metaphors, chapter titles or other various ways of intertwining the chess game into the book without the actual game being the main focus.

Chess is a game of critical thinking and strategy so many avid chess players find these types of books and articles very interesting as it is clear the author has had to use some thought to strategically position the chess analogies.

Chess can also be used in literature to dictate how the book or publications course goes. For example, a story may be based around a person and different “chess moves” they make in their life and how it affects their surroundings. It is a great way to depict struggles or battles that may be going on in a book or publication.

Chess is also found in arts, most commonly in paintings where the game of chess if being depicted being played by a group of individuals. Usually chess is played with two people. They have a board that they place the chess pieces on to. The pieces are two colors, usually black and white, and have varying shapes mostly based on medieval times. This includes kings, queens, knights, bishops and pawns.

Each player is allowed to make one move of their pieces before the other player gets to move again. The king piece is being protected by all the other chess pieces. The object of the game is to checkmate, or block the other player’s king so that he has nowhere to move the king.

Also, in arts you actually see the game of chess depicted through ballet, musicals or interpretive dance moves. Again, the chess game may be more literal or the dancers may be recreating the battle or games being played as chess pieces are moved up and across a board.

 

Society, Social Justice And The Function Of Art And Literature

In Britain, as recently as the first half of this century, whole areas of our biggest cities were covered in slum dwellings. Fortunately, most of them have been cleared away, but in Victorian times, arguably the most prosperous period Britain has ever known, large numbers of people lived in conditions that would not have been out of place in some of the poorest countries on Earth. This anomaly, of a fabulously prosperous country in which many of its population lived in conditions of abject poverty, was seen by some as the failure of the system of government, of mercantilism, and of laissez faire politics in general. Out of such a society grew the British Labour party, which pledged itself to implement social reform, which it did on a grand scale; and the birth of the National Health Service, the ‘envy of the world’ grew out of such social mayhem.

As well as opinions voiced by philanthropic industrialists, some courageous and determined politicians, and the will of the people at elections, a vociferous opinion has always emanated from the field of the arts and literature. Many famous writers have voiced their discontent publicly at meetings and in their writing. Charles Dickens, George Orwell, Robert Tressell, D H Lawrence, H G Wells and George Bernard Shaw were just such writers. Although they lived at different times, came from very different backgrounds, and wrote in widely varying styles and genres, they nevertheless all shared a discontent with the status quo and the apparent inability of those charged with such things to change for the better the lives of those responsible for the country’s wealth.

Dickens’ ‘Hard Times’ showed the failings of a society organised along utilitarian and industrial lines, and its almost willful neglect and inability to feed, clothe and house its people properly, despite the vast wealth made by its entrepreneurial classes.

Orwell depicted the squalor of many people’s lives in England in his ‘The Road to Wigan Pier’, while H.G. Wells and George Bernard Shaw wrote pamphlets and treatises on social, economical and political injustice in what was supposed to be the home of democracy; Britain.

Writers such as D H Lawrence were as much concerned with the spiritual wellbeing of industrial society as they were with the physical living conditions prevalent in industrial areas, while Robert Tressell’s ‘The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists’ did as much to raise awareness of society’s ills as it did to encourage the birth of socialism. Many still regard that ‘novel’ as the major text extolling the virtues of socialism, and that despite it being ostensibly a work of fiction.

The point I want to make is that the literary figures of the day, arguably among the more sensitive portion of the nation’s population, saw social injustice as a stain on that nation’s accomplishments. They saw it as a devaluing of all that was great or good about Britain.

Works of creative fiction can touch people in ways that other forms of mass communication cannot. The messages they attempt to convey are more believable simply because they possess the quality of altruism and grace.

Perhaps more importantly, literature is able to undermine the intellectual base of dominant ideologies, by illustration and example, and thus remove the moral base upon which such ideologies are founded. Examples abound in popular literature; surely there has never been a finer denunciation of the maxim: The rich man in his castle, the poor man at his gate, than Dickens’ portrayal of Jo the crossing sweeper in ‘Bleak House’ nor a clearer condemnation of the love of money for its own sake than is shown by the fate of George Eliot’s Silas Marner.

All such works are usually referred to as ‘the classics’, which is to say that the truths they extol have stood the test of time. They are no less valid in the latter half of the 20th Century than they were when they were written, and while there is still injustice, social or otherwise, literature is able to confront it, and bring to our notice the fact that nothing is new in the world. Injustice has a history, as do kings and queens.

If a nation is to improve the life chances of its population, then those who are able to visualize alternatives are invaluable. The raising to public awareness of values that are essential to the healthy growth of a nation is vital if conditions are to improve, and one of the main functions of literature is the raising of that awareness in the public consciousness; the messages that literature in general is still capable of conveying.

The world of the visual arts has traditionally been no less critical of the status quo. Within the pre-Raphaelite movement, Holman Hunt’s ‘The Hireling Shepherd’ presents a powerful visual criticism of the Church. The young shepherd disregards his flock for more earthly pleasures, and this image representing a clergy adrift from the values of the people it served had its parallel in poetry; Milton’s elegy for ‘Lycidas’ used the same imagery of the shepherd and his neglected flock to portray a flawed clergy. And so it is that art, visual and poetic has been traditionally used as a means of voicing discontent and criticism of vested interest. Furthermore, this use of art has not been confined to the shores of the British Isles. The years of Stalinism in the Soviet Union had detractors from the world of art, notably in Dimitri Shostakovitch, whose music was denounced as being subversive by the political elite. More recently, Alexander Solzhenitzen and Andre Sakarov condemned the excesses of the regime in Soviet Russia in their writing. In America, Miller’s ‘The Crucible’ provided an allegorical illustration of the folly of the McCarthy ‘Witch Hunts’.

There is no doubt that literature and the arts have the ability to bring about change, by means of alternative values entering the consciousness of a people, and by influencing the powerful. The tolerance a nation has for its critics is surely a sign of its health, and that of its people. Doesn’t the ability to withstand criticism show self-confidence in one’s judgment, and isn’t that judgment all the more carefully formulated once it is known that it will be under close scrutiny and subject to criticism. Political decisions that are subject to checks and balances are all the better for it; literature can provide that scrutiny and criticism, and those checks and balances.

 

Connecting Art and Literature

Art and literature have the strong relation, but many people are mislead by the wrong idea. They think that both of them are two separated things. In this case, knowing the right idea will lead them to come up with the better opinion. Actually, literature is a part of art, but it is different from the other aspects of art (such as music, painting and dancing). The following explanation will tell you more about the relation of those things.

Art and literature are the two great things. The first is the home for the latter. Literature is the art of telling story to someone, either orally or written. By reading literary works, you can read the art of language. It is the beautiful thing if you can recognize such things when you read the works. People can visualize the literary works in the form of drama, painting, film, and even theater. We can mention the examples to prove such opinions. If you have read the example, I am sure you can find the other examples by yourself, since there are many examples in our daily life.

“The Notebook” becomes the first proof of the strong relation between art and literature. This film is adapted from a novel with the same title written by Nicholas Sparks. Anyway, watching film will enable you to look at the great combination of arts, such as music, film, language, and many other things. Another more phenomenal example is the adaptation of Harry Potter series from novel into films. All are success and welcome by many people out there. It becomes the good proof to change your opinion that both things are not connected.

Definitely, there are many other examples out there. People can make a work by taking the inspiration from the other aspects of life, one of them is art. Sometimes, you can also find the novel written as the result of adaptation from a film. It is a kind of great idea. What do you think about such works?